How to Cite your Sources

 

Plagiarism

Advice to all pupils.

Plagiarism is a form of cheating in coursework. It occurs if you present work as your own when you have included within it without acknowledgement material from someone else. This may be quotation, paraphrase or even summary of another’s views. It can be intentional (copying) or unintentional (forgetting to acknowledge your sources). It is a serious matter which at school can result in being withdrawn from important exams and in Higher Education in being expelled from Uni. It is important that you get into good habits now in terms of documenting what sources you use for projects or coursework.

Any act of mere downloading, off the internet, and collating cannot itself be acceptable. Any assignment requires you, yourself, to read, reflect, digest, and interpret before making your own conclusions. You must give references.

Some assignments explicitly require you to read widely and to discuss, and evaluate, the work of others…and eventually arrive at your own conclusions. As long as you give references where appropriate, you will not be committing plagiarism.

Noting your sources is also an important step in evaluating where you are getting your information from; that it is credible, accurate and up to date.

There are many conventions regarding how to acknowledge and reference. However, consistency is important. A good example is given overleaf. References can be numbered in the text and then fully presented on a separate Acknowledgement Page. Ask your teacher what is the preferred style.

Publication details are usually found in the front pages of the book and on the internet at the base of a homepage. Sometimes you will have to go to the “About Us“ tab.

Note: If, after carefully looking, you cannot find authoring information on a website it is reasonable to assume that it is not credible. Don’t use it!

 

Nottingham High School Library Guide to

The Harvard Method of Citing Your Sources

A BOOK

Authors surname, initials., Year. Full title, with subtitle if any, in italics. Edition if not 1st Edition. Place of publication: Publisher’s name.

Example:

Crawford, William,1979. The Keepers of Light. A History & Working Guide to Early Photographic Processes. 3rd Ed. New York: Morgan & Morgan.

An in-text reference for the above examples may read as follows:

Chemical properties have been known to differ (Crawford, 1979) where …..

Or

Crawford (1979) suggests that chemical properties have been known to differ.

Or

Chemical properties exhibit “dynamic characteristics” (Crawford, 1978) where…

A MAGAZINE or JOURNAL ARTICLE

Authors name in reverse.  Year.  Title of Article. Full title of journal in italics,  Volume/issue/part number, page numbers.

Example:

Winwood, I., 2007. J Rocks! Japanese Cult Runs Riot in the Land of the Setting Sun. New Scientist, 14 Aug 2007, pp.16-19

An in-text reference for this magazine article would look the same as the book reference.

INTERNET RESOURCES

(Websites)

Authorship or Source, Year, Title of web document or webpage,(type of medium)(date of update if available)Available at: website address /URL (Date you looked at it)

Example:

Anglia Ruskin University, 2014, Harvard System of Referencing (Online)( 2 February 2014)Available at http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm (2 Oct 2014).

(As web pages change and even disappear, you must put the date on which you viewed or retrieved the information)

An in-text reference for this webpage article would look like this

Harvard referencing is generally preferable (Anglia Ruskin University, 2010) when citing …..

Examples of citation from other types of resource can be found  via the Anglia Ruskin University URL given above.